Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762)

AFROTROPICAL REGION

[Global invasive]

Family
Subfamily
Tribe
Genus
Subgenus
Group

 

Etymology: Egypt

Aedes aegypti is the best-studied of all mosquito species, boosted into notoriety by Walter Reed’s discovery that it transmitted yellow fever to man. The distribution of Ae. aegypti is essentially pan-global in tropical regions. Placed within the Aegypti Group along with Ae. mascarensis (MacGregor, 1848) and Ae. pia Le Goff & Robert, 2013, Ae. aegypti has one valid subspecies—formosus (Walker)—and 27 synonyms. This sylvatic, presumed ancestral, entity was described from Sierra Leone, but Ae. aegypti formosus has been reported in forested regions in eastern and southern sub-Saharan Africa. It is thought that the forest subspecies followed humans as agriculture developed in Africa, evolving into a primarily domesticated entity—Aedes aegypti aegypti—now almost universally distributed. Aedes aegypti has recently expanded its range into the western United States, reinvaded southern Europe including Turkey, and has adapted to urban conditions in Australia.

Type locality: Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaya [Malaysia]

Type depository: Natural History Museum, London, England, United Kingdom (NHMUK)

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS  (Click photos to view; mouse over and click large photo to zoom in.)

ADULT (illustrated): Distinctively marked with silvery or white scale patches on scutum and legs; Head: Palpus with apical white scales; proboscis entirely dark-scaled; clypeus with patch of pale scales; pedicel with pale scales on lateral surfaces. Thorax: Scutum with lyre-shaped white markings; scutellum with broad white scales on all lobes. Lower proepisternal and mesepimeral scales present; postpronotal scales present; postspiracular area without scales; paratergite with broad white scales; subspiracular area with broad white scales. Legs: Ta-III1–5 with pale basal bands, sometimes with faint apical bands; Ta-III5 all or mostly white. 

LARVA (not illustrated): Head: Seta 4-C prominent, many branched; seta 5-C single, at same level as 7-C; setae 4,6-C distinctly anterior to 7-C. Thorax: Support plates of setae 9–12-M,T with stout hooked spines. Terminal segments: Comb scales in single row, each with distinct lateral spinules; seta 4-X with 5 pairs of setae.

 

TAXONOMIC KEYS

Carpenter & LaCasse 1955

Ross & Horsfall 1965

Dodge 1966

Ramalingam 1976

Huang 1979a

Lee et al. 1987a

Jupp 1996

Huang 2004

Darsie & Ward 2005

Rattanarithikul et al. 2010

Becker et al. 2010

Berti et al. 2015

Harrison et al. 2016

WRBU LUCID KEYS

 

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Neotropical Region – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Neotropical Region – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Australasian Region - Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Australasian Region - Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Indomalayan Region - Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Indomalayan Region - Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Oriental Region – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Oriental Region – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Eastern Palearctic Region – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Eastern Palearctic Region – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Western Palearctic Region – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Western Palearctic Region – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Afrotropical Region – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Afrotropical Region – Larva

Exemplar DNA sequences

Ae. aegypti  COI: AY645248–71, JQ926676–704, KT339679–83, KT766391–97, MG004689–714;

Ae. aegypti whole genome : GCF_002204515.2

 

BIONOMICS

Immatures

Aedes aegypti eggs are laid in natural or artificial containers where they can survive months before hatching. In rural environments, the species will oviposit in tree holes, and rotten tree stumps. Aedes aegypti oviposit only in freshwater and females can distinguish saline waters containing 5, 10, 17.5, and 35 salt parts per thousand from fresh water. It seems to be sensitive to competition with other container-developing species, including Ae. albopictus (Skuse).

Adults

Aedes aegypti is commonly found in urban and semi-urban environments in close association to man.  Female Ae. aegypti are generally highly anthrophophilic even when other animals are available, however they are known to feed on other mammals and birds. Females will readily enter houses to feed. Adults mate near the blood meal host and tend not to fly further than necessary to find resources.

 

DISTRIBUTION NOTES

Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bonaire, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands (Polynesia), Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curacao, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, India (includes Andaman Islands), Indonesia (includes Flores, Java, Kalimantan, Moluccas, Sumatra includes Ketulauan Riouw Archipelago, Sulawesi, Timor), Iran, Iraq, Israel (and Gaza Strip & West Bank), Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kiribati, Korea, Republic of, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar (includes Glorioso & Juan De Nova Is), Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marianas Islands, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mexico, Micronesia (Caroline Island), Micronesia (Wake Island), Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, People's Republic of China (includes Hainan), Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Republic of South Africa, Reunion, Russia (Southern Districts), Rwanda, Saba, Saint Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, Samoa (Ind. State of Samoa; American Samoa; Western Samoa), São Tomé & Príncipe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan & South Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tahiti, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States (continental, Hawaiʻi), Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Wallis & Futuna, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Distribution
Distribution map for <em>Aedes aegypti</em> (Linnaeus, 1762)

 

WRBU VECTOR HAZARD REPORTS

VHR: Chikungunya in the Americas and Caribbean

VHR: Honduras

VHR: Panama

VHR: West Africa

VHR: Southeast Asia

VHR: Middle East

VHR: Notes on the Biology of Zika Virus Vectors

VHR: Pictorial Guide to Zika Virus Vectors CONUS

VHR: Zika Virus Vectors of Puerto Rico

VHR: Medically Important Mosquitoes of EUCOM

VHR: Mosquito Activity Forecast US-Mexico Border October 2019

VHR: Southern US and Northern Mexico

VHR: Mosquitoes of the Caribbean 

View other WRBU Vector Hazard Reports

Available GIS Models:

Ae_aegypti_Nyari_1 Global

Ae_aegypti_Samson_1 South & Central America

Monthly Average Habitat Suitability Kraemer et al 2016 Global

 

IMPORTANT REFERENCES (full citations below)

Linnaeus 1762: 470 (A; Culex)

Goeldi 1905 (*E; as synonym fasciata Fabricius, 1805)

Banks 1908 (M*, F*; as Stegomyia persistans)

Bancroft 1908: 20 (M, F; "Tiger Mosquito"; Stegomyia fasciata)

Howard et al. 1913 (1912) (E*; as synonym calopus Meigen, 1818)

Howard et al. 1917: 827 (M*, F, P*, L*, E*; as synonym calopus Meigen, 1818)

Dyar 1920i: 204 (taxonomy)

Macfie & Ingram 1922 (F*)

Barraud 1923g (L*; as Stegomyia argentea)

Gerry 1932 (F*)

Patton 1933: 182 (taxonomy)

Barraud 1934: 221 (M*, F, L*)

Edwards 1941: 128 (M*, F, P*; bionomics)

Bohart & Ingram 1946b: 6, 37, 66 (M*, F*, P*, L*; distribution, bionomics)

Ross 1947 (F*)

LaCasse & Yamaguti 1950 (F*)

Darsie 1951: 10 (P*)

Yamaguti & LaCasse 1951d: 247 (M*, F*, L*)

Hopkins 1952: 134 (L*; bionomics)

Knight & Hull 1952: 167 (M, F, L*)

Carpenter & LaCasse 1955: 261 (M*, F*, L*; keys)

Teesdale 1955: 711 (bionomics)

Horsfall 1955: 476 (review)

Iyengar & Menon 1955 (distribution)

Bohart 1957 (1956) 6 (distribution; Micronesia)

Craig 1956 (E*)

Mattingly 1957b: 392 (taxonomy, bionomics)

Hara 1957 (F*)

Craig & Horsfall 1958 (E*)

Christophers 1960: 1 (E*; bionomics, morphology)

Craig & Horsfall 1960 (E*)

Belkin 1962: 443 (distribution)

Belkin 1962: 8 (distribution)

Mattingly et al. 1962: 208 (taxonomy, neotype designation, type locality designation)

Clements 1963 (F*)

ICZN 1964 (validation of name)

Spielman 1964 (F*)

Mattingly 1965b (F*)

Ross & Horsfall 1965 (M*, F*, L*, E*; keys)

Dodge 1966: 348 (1st instar L*; key)

Mohrig 1967 (F*)

Hinton & Service 1969 (E*)

Pratt & Kidwell 1969 (E*)

Belkin et al. 1970: 184 (M*, F*, P*, L*)

Horsfall et al. 1970: 1710 (E*)

Rjazantzeva 1970 (F*)

Aslamkhan 1971b (distribution; Pakistan)

Basio 1971b: 27 (M*; bionomics)

Lambrecht & van Someren 1971: 483 (distribution)

Mattingly 1971a: Pl. 18 (P*);Pl. 30 (L head*); Pl. 31 (L head*, terminal segments*)

McClelland 2009 (taxonomy)

Laffoon & Knight 1971 (F*)

Matsuo et al. 1972: 360 (E*)

Harrison & Rattanarithikul 1973: 280 (L*, 1st & 3rd instars)

Hartberg & Craig 1973: 206 (genetic taxonomy)

Moriya et al. 1973 (E*)

Matsuo et al. 1974: 180 (E*)

Baisas 1974: 30 (M, F, P, L; taxonomy, bionomics, distribution; Philippines)

Tanaka et al. 1975c: 222 (bionomics, distribution)

Paterson et al. 1976: 252 (Africa; sensu lato)

Ramalingam 1976: 304 (taxonomy, bionomics, keys, distribution; Samoa & Tonga)

Brunhes 1977a (distribution; Comoros Islands)

Huang 1977c: 292 (distribution)

Rodhain et al. 1977 (distribution)

Rossignol & McIver 1977 (F*)

Taylor & Maffi 1978: 216 (distribution)

Harbach & Knight 1978 (E*)

Huang 1979a (M*, F*, P*, L*; keys, distribution)

Tanaka et al. 1979: 396 (M*, F*, L*)

White 1980: 140 (distribution)

Harbach & Knight 1980 (F*)

Hinton 1981 (E)

Ahmed 1987 (distribution; Bangladesh)

Lee et al. 1987a: 14 (F key, taxonomy, bionomics, distribution, review)

Linley 1989b (E*)

Jupp 1996 (M*, F*; key)

Clements 1999 (F*)

Darsie & Ward 2000 (distribution; United States)

Reinert 2000e: Fig. 34 (F*)

Jarial 2001 (E*)

Chadee 2003: 199 (distribution; Trinidad & Tobago)

Pena et al. 2003 (distribution; Dominican Republic)

Rossi & Martínez 2003: 471 (distribution; Uruguay)

Toto et al. 2003: 344 (distribution; Equatorial Guinea)

Trari et al. 2002: 331 (distribution; Morocco)

Carpintero & Leguizamón 2004: 501 (distribution; Argentina) 

Huang 2004 (M*, F*; distribution, keys)

Darsie & Ward 2005 (F*, L*; keys, distribution)

Rattanarithikul et al. 2010 (F*, L*; keys, bionomics, distribution; Thailand)

Becker et al. 2010: 198 (M*, F*, L*; keys, taxonomy, distribution, bionomics)

Berti et al. 2015 (distribution; Venezuela)

Kraemer et al. 2015 (distribution)

Harrison et al. 2016 (F*, L*; keys, distribution)

Robert et al. 2019 (distribution, western Palearctic)

 

CURRENT SYNONYMS

syn. argenteus Poiret

1787: 245 (F; Culex). Type locality: Barbary [Barbary Coast?] (NE). References: Knab 1916a: 59 (taxonomy); Kirkpatrick 1925b: 87 (M*, F, P*, L*).

syn. fasciatus Fabricius

1805: 36 (A; Culex). Type locality: Americae Insulis [Antilles] (ZMC). References: Theobald 1901a: 289 (M*, F*; tax.); Barraud 1928c: 377 (comprehensive review); Martini 1930: 245 (M*, F*, P*, L*, E*; bionomics); Bonne-Wepster & Brug 1932: 47 (M*, F, L*; bionomics); Belkin 1968b: 5 (lectotype designation).

syn. calopus Meigen

1818: 3 (M, F; Culex). Type locality: Portugal (NE).

syn. mosquito Robineau-Desvoidy

1827: 407 (M; Culex). Type locality: Cuba (NE). References: Theobald 1901a: 295 (taxonomy).

syn. frater Robineau-Desvoidy

1827: 408 (M*; Culex). Type locality: West Indies [Antilles] (NE).

syn. taeniatus Wiedemann

1828: 10 (M, F; Culex). Type locality: Savannah [Georgia, United States] (NMW). References: Belkin 1968b: 7 (taxonomy).

syn. sugens Wiedemann

1828: 545 (F; Culex). Type locality: Nubia [North-east Africa] (SNG).

 syn. kounoupi Brullé

1833: 289 (A; Culex). Type locality: Morea, Greece (NE).

syn. toxorhynchus Macquart

1838a: 39 (F; Culex). Type locality: Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara, Brazil (MNHP). References: Lane 1944: 183 (?= Toxorhynchites theobaldi); Belkin 1968b: 8 (change in synonymy); Belkin et al. 1971: 20 (type locality information).

syn. annulitarsis Macquart

1846a: 136 (F; Culex). Type locality: De l'ile de France [Mauritius] (NE). References: Mattingly & Bruce-Chwatt 1954: 191 (taxonomy, synonymy).

syn. viridifrons Walker

1848: 3 (F; Culex). Type locality: not stated: “Presented by Captain Lord Byron” (NHMUK).

syn. excitans Walker

1848: 4 (F; Culex). Type locality: Georgia [United States] (NHMUK).

ssp. formosus (Walker)

1848: 4 (F; Culex). Type locality: Sierra Leone (NHMUK). Distribution: Angola, Cote d'Ivoire, Gabon, Kenya, Nigeria, Republic of South Africa, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda. References: Mattingly 1957b: 395 (to subspecies); Service 1976a (distribution; Gabon); Huang 2004 (F*; taxonomy, keys, distribution). Etymology: beautiful (L); [not named for island of Formosa]. Informal name: Beautiful Sierra Leonean Pointy Mosquito.

syn. inexorabilis Walker

1848: 4 (F; Culex). Type locality: West Africa (NHMUK).

syn. exagitans Walker

1856a: 430 (F; Culex). Type locality: Para, [Brazil] (NHMUK). References: Belkin et al. 1971: 20 (type information).

syn. insatiabilis Bigot

1859: 118 (M*, F*; Culex). Type locality: Madagascar (NE).

syn. bancrofti Skuse

1889: 1740 (M*; Culex).Type locality: Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (MM).

syn. elegans Ficalbi

1890 (1889)b: 95 (M, F; Culex). Type locality: Italy (LU).

syn. rossii Giles

1899: 64 (M, F; Culex). Type locality: Calcutta, [West Bengal], India (LU).

syn. queenslandensis Theobald

1901a: 297 (F; Stegomyia fasciata var.). Type locality: Burpengary, Queensland, Australia (NHMUK).  References: Lewis 1945: 9 (M, F); Mattingly 1953a: 46, 60 (taxonomy); van Someren et al. 1955: 473 (M, F); Mattingly & Knight 1956: 100, 119, 135 (taxonomy); Mattingly 1957b: 395 (to variety); Huang 1979a: 2, 41 (synonymy); Lee et al. 1987b: 14 (F key, taxonomy, bionomics, distribution, review; to synonymy with aegypti).

syn. luciensis Theobald

1901a: 297 (M, F; Stegomyia fasciata variety). Type locality: St Lucia [Lesser Antilles] (NHMUK). References: Barraud 1934: 222 (A); Belkin 1968b: 6 (lectotype designation).

syn. nigeria Theobald

1901a: 303 (F*; Stegomyia). Type locality: Bonny [Eastern Provinces, Nigeria] (NHMUK).

syn. lamberti Ventrillon

1904: 552 (M, F; Stegomyia). Type locality: Ankazobe, Diego-Suarez, Majunga, Madagascar (NHMUK). References: Rodhain & Boutonnier 1985: 275 (from synonymy with albopictus; syntypes PIP); Townsend 1990: 92 (syntypes; change type depository from LU to NHMUK); Ward 1992 (as synonym of aegypti).

syn. canariensis Pittaluga

1905: 432 (M*, F*; Stegomyia calopus variety). Type locality: Canary Islands (LU).

syn. persistans Banks

1906b: 996 (M, F; Stegomyia fasciata). Type locality: Manila, Negros Occidental & Iloilo, Philippines (NE).

syn. angustealatus Becker

1908: 79 (M; Culex). Type locality: Tenerife, Canary Islands (ZM).

syn. albopalposus Becker

1908: 80 (F; Culex). Type locality: Santa Cruz, Tenerife, Canary Islands (ZM).

syn. alboannulis Ludlow

1911b: 132 (F; Duttonia). Type locality: Mindanao, Philippines (USNM).

syn. pulcherrima Taylor

1919: 830 (M, Mimeteomyia). Type locality: Cairns, Queensland, Australia (US). References: Knight & Marks 1952: 517 (synonymy).

syn. atritarsis Edwards

1920a: 129 (M; Stegomyia fasciata var.). Type locality: Accra, Ghana (NHMUK). References: Edwards 1941: 132 (M, F).

 

CITED REFERENCES

Ahmed, T.U. (1987). Checklist of the mosquitoes of Bangladesh. Mosquito Systematics, 19(3), 187–200.

Aslamkhan, M. (1971b). The mosquitoes of Pakistan I. A checklist. Mosquito Systematics, 3(4), 147–159.

Baisas, F. E. (1974). The mosquito fauna of Subic Bay Naval Reservation, Republic of the Philippines. San Francisco: Headquarters, First Medical Service Wing (PACAF), San Francisco.

Bancroft, T. L. (1908). List of the mosquitoes of Queensland, with the original descriptions and notes on the life-history of a number. Annals of the Queensland Museum, 8, 1–64.

Banks, C. S. (1906b). A list of Philippine Culicidae with descriptions of some new species. Philippine Journal of Science, 1(9), 977–1005.

Banks, C. S. (1908). Biology of Philippine Culicidae. Philippine Journal of Science, 3(4), 235–258.

Barraud, P. J. (1923g). A revision of the Culicine Mosquitoes of India. Part VII. The larvae of some species of Stegomyia; the larvae of some species of Finlaya; the larva of Christophersiomyia thomsoni; the larva of Mimomyia chamberlaini; the larva of Aedomyia catasticta. Indian Journal of Medical Research (Calcutta), 11(2), 495–505.

Barraud, P. J. (1934). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Diptera. Vol. 5. Family Culicidae, tribes Megarhinini and Culicini (Vol. 5). London: Taylor and Francis.

Basio, R. G. (1971b). The mosquito fauna of the Philippines (Diptera, Culicidae). Manila: National Museum of the Philippines. 198pp.

Becker, T. (1908). Dipteren der Kanarischen inseln. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum, Berlin, 6, 78–81.

Becker, N., Petrić, D., Zgomba, M., Boase, C., Madon, M., Dahl, C., & Kaiser, A. (2010). Mosquitoes and their control (Second ed.). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Belkin, J.N. (1962). The mosquitoes of the South Pacific (Diptera, Culicidae) (Vols. 1 &2). Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Belkin, J.N., Heinemann, S.J., & Page, W.A. (1970). The Culicidae of Jamaica (Mosquito studies. XXI) Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 6(1), 458.

Berti, J., Guzmán, H., Estrada, Y., & Ramírez, R. (2015). New records of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Bolívar State in South Eastern Venezuela, with 27 new species for the state and 5 of them new in the country. Frontiers in Public Health, 2, 10.

Bigot, M.J. (1859). Diptères de Madagascar. Première partie. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 7, 115–135.

Bohart, R.M. (1957). Insects of Micronesia (Diptera: Culicidae) (Vol. 12). Honolulu, Hawaii Bishop Museum, Honolulu.

Bohart, R.M., & Washino, R.K. (1957). Differentiation of second and third stage larvae of California Culex (Diptera: Culicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 50, 459–463.

Brullé, G.A. (1833) IVe classe. Insectes. In: Bory de Saint-Vincent, J.B.G.M., Expédition scientifique de Morée. Section des sciences physiques [sous la direction de M. Bory de Saint-Vincent]. Tome III. Partie 1. Zoologie. Sect. 2. Des animales articulés. Levrault, Paris & Strasbourg, 400 pp.

Brunhes, J. (1977a). Les moustiques de l'archipel des Comores I. Inventaire, repartition et description de quatre espèces ou sous-espécies nouvelles. Cahier ORSTOM. Série Entomologie Médicale et Parasitologie, 15(2), 131–152.

Carpenter, S.J., & LaCasse, W.J. (1955). Mosquitoes of North America (North of Mexico). Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Carpintero, D.J., & Leguizamon, M.N. (2004). Description of a new Culex (Culex) species (Diptera: Culicidae) from La Pampa Province, Argentina, and a preliminary list of the mosquitoes of the province. Studia Dipterologica, 11, 501–503.

Chadee, D.D. (2003). Surveillance for the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in Tobago, West Indies. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 19(3), 199–205.

Christophers, S.R. (1960). Aedes aegypti (L.), the yellow fever mosquito: Its life history, bionomics and structure. London, UK: Cambridge University Press.

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Clements, A.N. (1999). The biology of mosquitoes: Volume 2: Sensory reception and behaviour. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

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Craig Jr., G.B., & Horsfall, W.R. (1960). Eggs of floodwater mosquitoes. VII. Species of Aedes common in the Southeastern United States (Diptera: Culicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 53(1), 11–18.

Darsie, R.F., Jr. (1951). Pupae of the culicine mosquitoes of the northeastern United States (Diptera, Culicidae, Culicini). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Memoir 304.

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Darsie, R.F., Jr., & Ward, R.A. (2005). Identification and geographical distribution of the mosquitoes of North America, north of Mexico. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.

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Edwards, F.W. (1941). Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian Region. III. Culicine adults and pupae. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology.

Ficalbi, E. (1890b). Descrizione di una specie nuova. Zanara elegante, Culex elegans n. sp. (Notizie preventive sulle zanzare italiane. va. Nota preventiva). Bolotino della Societa Entomologica Italiana, 21 (1889), 95–100.

Gerry, B. I. (1932). Morphological studies of the female genitalia of Cuban mosquitoes. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 25, 31–75.

Giles, G. M. (1899). A description of the Culicidae employed by Major R. Ross, I.M.S. in his investigations on malaria. Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2, 62–65.

Goeldi, E.A. (1905). Os mosquitos no Para. Memórias do Museu Goeldi de Historia Natural e Ethnographia, 4.

Hara, J. (1957). Studies on the female terminalia of Japanese mosquitoes. Japanese Journal of Experimental Medicine, 27, 45–91.

Harbach, R.E., & Knight, K.L. (1978). A mosquito taxonomic glossary. XV. The egg. Mosquito Systematics, 10(2), 249–297.

Harbach, R.E., & Knight, K.L. (1980). Taxonomists’ glossary of mosquito anatomy. Marlton, NJ: Plexus Publishing, Inc.

Harrison, B.A., & Rattanarithikul, R. (1973). Comparative morphology of the early larval instars of Aedes aegypti and A. seatoi in Thailand. Mosquito Systematics, 5(4), 280–294.

Harrison, B.A., Byrd, B.D., Sither, C.B., & Whitt, P.B. (2016). The mosquitoes of the Mid-Atlantic Region: an identification guide (Vol. 1). Madison Heights, MI: Publishing XPress.

Hartberg, W.K., & G.B. Craig, J. (1973). Gene-controlled morphological differences in male genitalia of Aedes aegypti and Aedes mascarensis (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosquito News, 33, 206–214.

Hinton, H.E. (1981). Biology of insect eggs. Volumes 1,2,3. Pergammon Press, Oxford, UK.

Hinton, H.E., & Service, M.W. (1969). The surface structure of aedine eggs as seen with the scanning electron microscope. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 63(4), 409–411.

Hopkins, G.H.E. (1952). Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian region. I. Larval bionomics of mosquitoes and taxonomy of culicine larvae (2nd ed.). London, UK: British Museum (Natural History).

Horsfall, W.R. (1955). Mosquitoes. Their bionomics and relation to disease. New York, NY: Hafner Publishing Company. (Reprinted 1972).

Horsfall, W.R., Voorhees, F.R., & Cupp, E.W. (1970). Eggs of floodwater mosquitoes. XIII. Chorionic sculpturing. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 63, 1709–1716. Howard, L.O., Dyar, H.G., & Knab, F. (1913). The mosquitoes of North and Central America and the West Indies. (Vol. II) (1912). Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington.

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Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (Year). Aedes aegypti species page. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit Website, http://wrbu.si.edu/vectorspecies/mosquitoes/aegypti, accessed on [date (e.g. 03 February 2020) when you last viewed the site].