Anopheles crucians Wiedemann, 1828




Etymology: n.s. [torment, torture (L)]

Type locality: New Orleans, Louisiana, United States

Type depository: Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria (NMW)


Roth 1944

Pelaez 1945

Carpenter & LaCasse 1955

Dodge 1966

Darsie & Ward 2005

Beltrán-Aguilar et al. 2011

Harrison et al. 2016




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Exemplar DNA sequences

All Anopheles crucians DNA sequences

Associated Pathogens



Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, United States (continental).



Wiedemann 1828: 12 (A)

Davis 1926 (F*)

Bellamy 1939 (ref. to brackish crucians)

Roth 1944: 99 (M*), 107 (M; keys)

Pelaez 1945: 74 (F*; key)

Darsie 1949: 525 (P*)

Penn 1949a: 63 (P*)

Bellamy & Repass 1950: 84 (E*)

Yamaguti & LaCasse 1950b: 38 (M*, F*, L*)

Breeland 1951: 224 (L*)

Carpenter & LaCasse 1955: 35 (M*, F*, L*; keys)

Horsfall 1955: 75 (review)

Dodge 1966: 362 (first instar L*; key; s.l.; includes bradleyi and georgianus)

Belkin 1968b: 9 (lectotype designation)

Belkin et al. 1970: 17 (M*, F*, P*, L*)

Kreutzer et al. 1970 (chromosomes*)

Kreutzer & Kitzmiller 1971b (chromosomes*, taxonomy)

Vargas 1975: 77 (distribution)

Floore et al. 1976: 15 (M*, F*, P*, L*; taxonomy)

Wilkerson et al. 2004 (molecular taxonomy; An. crucians complex)

Darsie & Ward 2005 (F*, L*; keys, distribution)

Beltrán-Aguilar et al. 2011: 647 (M*, F*, P*, L*; taxonomy, keys, distribution)

Harrison et al. 2016 (F*, L*; keys, distribution, taxonomy; s.l.; notes 8, 19)

Giordano 2019 (distribution; Canada)









Belkin, J.N. (1968b). Mosquito studies (Diptera, Culicidae). IX. The type specimens of New World mosquitoes in European museums. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 3(4), 1–69.

Belkin, J.N., Heinemann, S.J., & Page, W.A. (1970). The Culicidae of Jamaica (Mosquito studies. XXI. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 6(1), 458.

Bellamy, R.E. (1939). An anopheline from inland Georgia resembling the brackish-water race of Anopheles crucians. Journal of Parasitology, 25(2), 186.

Bellamy, R.E., & Repass, R.P. (1950). Notes of the ova of Anopheles georgianus King. Journal of the National Malaria Society, 9, 84–88.

Beltrán-Aguilar, A., Ibáñez-Bernal, S., Mendoza-Palmero, F., Sandoval-Ruiz, C.A., & Hernández-Xoliot, R.A. (2011). Taxonomy and distribution of the anopheline mosquitoes in the state of Veracruz, Mexico (Diptera: Culicidae, Anophelinae). Acta zoologica Mexicana (n.s.), 27(3), 601–755.

Breeland, S.G. (1951). The identification of the early larval instars of three common anophelines of southern Georgia, U.S.A. Journal of the U.S.A. National Malaria Society, 10, 224–232.

Carpenter, S.J., & LaCasse, W.J. (1955). Mosquitoes of North America (North of Mexico). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Darsie, R.F. (1949). Pupae of the anopheline mosquitoes of the northeastern United States (Diptera, Culicidae). Revista de entomología, 20(1–3), 509–530.

Darsie, R.F., Jr., & Ward, R.A. (2005). Identification and geographical distribution of the mosquitoes of North America, north of Mexico. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Davis, N.C. (1926). Notes on the female hypopygia of anopheline mosquitoes, with special reference to some Brazilian species. American Journal of Hygiene, 6(March suppl.), 1–22.

Dodge, H.R. (1966). Studies on mosquito larvae. II. The first-stage larvae of North American Culicidae and of world Anophelinae. The Canadian Entomologist, 98(4), 337–393.

Floore, T.G., Harrison, B.A., & Eldridge, B.F. (1976). The Anopheles (Anopheles) crucians subgroup in the United States (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics, 8(1), 1–109.

Giordano, B.V. (2019). Transmission dynamics and epidemiology of West Nile Virus in Ontario, Canada [Doctoral thesis, Brock University, Canada].

Harrison, B.A., Byrd, B.D., Sither, C.B., & Whitt, P.B. (2016). The Mosquitoes of the Mid-Atlantic Region: An Identification Guide. Western Carolina University Mosquito and Vector-Borne Infectious Disease Laboratory.

Horsfall, W.R. (1955). Mosquitoes. Their bionomics and relation to disease. New York, NY: Hafner. (Reprinted 1972)

Kreutzer, R.D., Narang, S.L., & Kitzmiller, J.B. (1970). A comparison of the salivary gland chromosomes of Anopheles crucians and Anopheles bradleyi. Cytologia, 35, 527–551.

Kreutzer, R.D., & Kitzmiller, J.B. (1971b). Hybridization between Anopheles crucians and Anopheles bradleyi. Evolution, 25(1), 195–206.

Pelaez, D. (1945). Anofelinos de México. Clave para la determinación de especies y subespecies basada en los caracteres de las hembras adultas. Ciencia, 6, 69–77.

Penn, G.H. (1949a). Pupae of the Nearctic anopheline mosquitoes north of Mexico. Journal of the National Malaria Society, 8(1), 50–69.

Roth, L.M. (1944). A key to the Anopheles of the southeastern United States, by male genitalia (Diptera, Culicidae). The American Midland Naturalist, 31, 96–110.

Vargas, V.M. (1975). Clave para anofelinos adultos (hembras) de Costa Rica (Diptera, Culicidae). Brenesia, 6, 77–80.

Wiedemann, C.R.G. (1828). Aussereuropäische zweiflägelige insekten. (Vol. 1). Germany: Hamm.

Wilkerson, R.C., Reinert, J.F., & Li, C. (2004). Ribosomal DNA ITS2 sequences differentiate six species in the Anopheles crucians complex (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 41(3), 392–401.

Yamaguti, S., & LaCasse, W.J. (1950b). Mosquito fauna of North America. Part I. Genus Anopheles. Office of the Surgeon, Headquarters, 8th Army, US Army, United States.



Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (Year). Anopheles crucians species page. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit Website,, accessed on [date (e.g. 03 February 2020) when you last viewed the site].