Anopheles fragilis (Theobald, 1903)




Etymology: not stated [fragile (looking) (L)]

Type locality: Kuala Lumpur [Selangor], Malaya [Malaysia]

Type depository: Natural History Museum, London, England, United Kingdom (NHMUK)


Rattanarithikul & Harrison 1973 (Thailand)

Lee et al. 1987b (Australasia)

Darsie & Pradhan 1990 (Nepal)

Rattanarithikul et al. 2006b (Thailand)




 adult mosquito key icon

WRBU - Genera - Global - Adult

 larval key icon

WRBU - Genera - Global - Larva

 adult mosquito key icon

WRBU - Genera - Indomalaya - Adult

 larval key icon

WRBU - Genera - Indomalaya - Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU - Genera - Oriental - Adult

larval key icon

WRBU - Genera - Oriental - Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU - Anopheles Subgenera and Series - Indomalaya - Adult

larval key icon

WRBU - Anopheles Subgenera and Series - Indomalaya - Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU - Anopheles Subgenera and Series - Oriental - Adult

larval key icon

WRBU - Anopheles Subgenera and Series - Oriental - Larva

Exemplar DNA sequences

All Anopheles fragilis DNA sequences



Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand.



Theobald 1903f: 257 (M; as Stethomyia)

Christophers 1933: 109 (= bengalensis?)

Reid 1965: 109 (M*, F, P*, L*; synonymy)

Reid 1968: 232 (M*, F*, P*, L*; distribution)

Basio 1971b: 35 (M*, F*; bionomics)

Rattanarithikul & Harrison 1973 (L*; key; Thailand)

Baisas 1974: 48 (M, F, P, L*; taxonomy, bionomics, distribution; Philippines)

Harrison & Scanlon 1975: 162 (M*, F, P*, L*)

Lee et al. 1987b: 57 (F; key, taxonomy, bionomics, distribution, review)

Townsend 1990: 75 (type information)

Darsie & Pradhan 1990 (F, L; taxonomy, keys, bionomics, distribution; Nepal)

Rattanarithikul et al. 2006b (F*, L*; bionomics, distribution, keys)



syn. treacherii Leicester

1908: 19 (M, F; as species). Type locality: Malaya [Malaysia] (NHMUK). References: Puri 1949: 483 (to subspecies); Reid 1965: 109 (synonymy; lectotype designation).

syn. stantoni Puri

1949: 483 (L). Type locality: Malaya [Malaysia] and Netherlands East Indies (location unknown). References: Reid 1965: 109 (synonymy).






Baisas, F.E. (1974). The mosquito fauna of Subic Bay Naval Reservation, Republic of the Philippines. San Francisco, CA: First Medical Service Wing (PACAF), Technical Report 72-2.

Basio, R.G. (1971b). The Mosquito Fauna of the Philippines (Diptera Culicidae). Monograph No. 4). Manila, Philippines: National Museum of the Philippines.

Christophers, S.R. (1933). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Diptera. Vol. IV. Family Culicidae. Tribe Anophelini. London, England: Taylor and Francis.

Darsie, R.F., Jr., & Pradhan, S.P. (1990). The mosquitoes of Nepal: Their identification, distribution and biology. Mosquito Systematics, 22(2), 69–130.

Harrison, B.A., & Scanlon, J.E. (1975). Medical entomology studies. II. The subgenus Anopheles in Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 12(1), iv, 1–307.

Harrison, B.A., Scanlon, J.E., & Reid, J.A. (1973). A new synonomy and new species name in the Southeast Asian Anopheles hyrcanus complex. Mosquito Systematics, 5(4), 263–268.

Lee, D.J., Hicks, M.M., Griffiths, M., Debenham, M.L., Bryan, J.H., Russell, R.C., . . . Marks, E.N. (1987b). The Culicidae of the Australasian Region (Vol. 5). Commonwealth Department of Health, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine Monograph Series, 2. Canberra: Australian Government.

Leicester, G.F. (1908). The Culicidae of Malaya. Studies from the Institute for Medical Research, Federated Malay States, 3(3), 18–261.

Puri, I.M. (1949). Anophelines of the Oriental Region. In M.F. Boyd (Ed.), Malariology: A comprehensive survey of all aspects of this group of diseases from a global standpoint, by 65 contributors. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

Rattanarithikul, R., & Harrison, B.A. (1973). An illustrated key to the Anopheles larvae of Thailand. US Army Medical Component, SEATO, Bangkok, Thailand.

Rattanarithikul, R., Harrison, B.A., Harbach, R.E., Panthusiri, P., & Coleman, R.E. (2006b).

Illustrated keys to the mosquitoes of Thailand. IV. Anopheles. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 128 (Suppl. 2), 2.

Reid, J.A. (1965). A revision of the Anopheles aitkenii group in Malaya and Borneo. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 59(1), 106–125.

Reid, J.A. (1968). Anopheline mosquitoes of Malaya and Borneo. Studies from the Institute for Medical Research Malaysia, 31, 1–520.

Townsend, B.C. (1990). Culicidae. In B.C. Townsend, J. E. Chainey, R.W. Crosskey, A.C. Pont, R.P. Lane, J.P.T. Boorman, & C.A. Crouch (Eds.), A catalogue of the types of bloodsucking flies in the British Museum (Natural History) (pp. 35–152). London, England: British Museum (Natural History).

Theobald, F.V. (1903f). New Culicidae from the Federated Malay States. The Entomologist, 36(485), 256–259.



Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (Year). Anopheles fragilis species page. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit Website,, accessed on [date (e.g. 03 February 2020) when you last viewed the site].