Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas, 1771)




Etymology: ancient land of Hyrcania

Type locality: [Caspian Sea]

Type depository: Location Unknown (LU)


Lee et al. 1987b

Becker et al. 2010



adult mosquito key icon

WRBU - Genera - Global - Adult

 larval key icon

WRBU - Genera - Global - Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU - Genera - Eastern Palearctic - Adult

larval key icon

WRBU - Genera - Eastern Palearctic - Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU - Genera - Western Palearctic - Adult

larval key icon

WRBU - Genera - Western Palearctic - Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU - Anopheles - Republic of Georgia - Adult

Exemplar DNA sequences

All Anopheles hyrcanus DNA sequences

Associated Pathogens



Afghanistan, Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Crimean Peninsula, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France (includes Corsica), FYRO Macedonia, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy (includes Sardinia and Sicily), Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, People’s Republic of China, Romania, Russia (Southern Dists.), Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).



(Pallas) 1771: 475 (A, Culex)

Martini 1930: 146 (M*, F*)

Christophers 1933: 152 (taxonomy)

Ross & Roberts 1943b: 5 (M*, F*, L*; taxonomy, distribution, bionomics)

Bates et al. 1949 (taxonomy)

Reid 1953: 51 (taxonomy)

Gutsevich et al. 1974: 105 (M*, F*, L*)

Margalit & Tahori 1974: 80 (distribution)

Gutsevich 1976: 148 (taxonomy)

Lee et al. 1987b: 58 (F; key, taxonomy, bionomics, distribution, review)

Glick 1992: 129 (distribution; taxonomy)

Ramsdale & Snow 2000: 4 (distribution)

Halgos & Benkova 2004: 68 (distribution; Slovakia)

Becker et al. 2010: 169 (M*, F*, L*; keys, taxonomy, distribution, bionomics)

Robert et al. 2019 (distribution; western Palearctic)



syn. pictus Loew

1845: 4 (M). Type locality: Rhodes Island [Greece] (ZM). References: Senevet & Andarelli 1955a: 109 (M*, F*, P, L*).

syn. flerowi Portschinsky

1910: 605 (F*). Type locality: River Amu-Darya, Uzbek [Uzbekistan] (LU).

syn. mesopotamiae Christophers & Chand

1915: 196 (M, F*; sinensis variety). Type locality: Lower Iraq (MSI). References: Christophers 1933: 152 (synonymy).

syn. marzinovski Shingarev

1926: 48 (F; as variety). Type locality: Karayazy Steppe, South Caucasus [USSR] (LU). References: Stone et al. 1959: 20 (synonymy).

syn. popovi Shingarev

1928: 50 (M*, F). Type locality: Turkestan [Turkmenistan] (LU). References: Martini 1930: 150 (A).

syn. mahmuti Martini

1930: 149 (F*; as variety). Type locality: Asia Minor (LU). References: Christophers 1933: 152 (synonymy).






Bates, M., Beklemishev, W.N., & La Face, L. (1949). Anophelines of the Palearctic region. In M.F. Boyd (Ed.), Malariology: A comprehensive survey of all aspects of this group of diseases from a global standpoint, by 65 contributors (pp. 419–442). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

Becker, N., Petrić, D., Zgomba, M., Boase, C., Madon, M., Dahl, C., & Kaiser, A. (2010). Mosquitoes and their control (2nd ed.). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.

Christophers, S.R. (1933). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Diptera. Vol. IV. Family Culicidae. Tribe Anophelini. London, England: Taylor and Francis.

Christophers, S.R., & Chand, K. (1915). Notes on some anophelines from Arabia and Mesopotamia. Indian Journal of Medical Research (Calcutta), 3(1), 180–200.

Glick, J.I. (1992). Illustrated key to the female Anopheles of southwestern Asia and Egypt (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics, 24(2), 125–153.

Gutsevich, A.V. (1976). On polytypical species of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). I. Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas, 1771). Parazitologiya (St. Petersburg), 10(2), 148–153.

Gutsevich, A.V., Monchadskii, A.S., & Shtakel’berg, A.A. (1974). Mosquitoes, Family Culicidae. In Fauna of the USSR. Diptera.  New series No. 100, 3(4). Jerusalem, Israel: Keter Publishing House. (Original work published 1971).

Halgoš, J., & Benková, I. (2004). First record of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Slovakia. Biologia Bratislava, 59(Suppl. 15), 68.

Lee, D.J., Hicks, M.M., Griffiths, M., Debenham, M.L., Bryan, J.H., Russell, R.C., . . . Marks, E.N. (1987b). The Culicidae of the Australasian Region (Vol. 5). Commonwealth Department of Health, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine Monograph Series, 2. Canberra: Australian Government.

Loew, H. (1845). Dipterologische Beiträge. Posen: Decker.

Margalit, J., & Tahori, A.S. (1974). An annotated list of mosquitoes in Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology, 9, 77–91.

Martini, E. (1930). 11. u. 12. Culicidae. In E. Lindner (Ed.), Die Fliegen der palaerktischen Region. Band III (pp. 145–320). Stuttgart, Germany: E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Erwin Nägele).

Pallas, P.S. (1771). Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs. Vol. 1. St. Petersburg, Russia: Kayserliche Academie der Wissenschaften..

Portschinsky, J. (1910). Overview of the distribution of the most important pest animals in Russia in 1909. Ezhegodnik Glavnogo Upravleniya Zemleustroistva I Zemledeliya po Departmentu Zemledeliya, 3(3), 602–614.

Ramsdale, C.D., & Snow, K. (2000). Distribution of the genus Anopheles in Europe. European Mosquito Bulletin, 7, 1–26.

Reid, J.A. (1953). The Anopheles hyrcanus group in south-east Asia. (Diptera: Culicidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 44(1), 5–76.

Robert, V., Günay, F., Le Goff, G., Boussès, P., Sulesco, T., Khalin, A., Medlock, J.M., Kampen, H., Petrić, D., & Schaffner, F. (2019). Distribution chart for Euro-Mediterranean mosquitoes (western Palaearctic region). Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association, 37, 1–28.

Ross, E.S., & Roberts, H.R. (1943b). Mosquito atlas. Part II. Eighteen old world anophelines important to malaria. Philadelphia: The American Entomological Society, the Academy of Natural Sciences.

Senevet, G., & Andarelli, L. (1955a). Les Anopheles de l’Afrique du Nord et du Bassin Meditérranéen. In P. Lechevallier (Ed.), Encylopédie Entomologique, Paris, 33, 1–280.

Shingarev, N.I. (1926). New information on Culicidae of U.S.S.R. Tropichenskai meditsina I: Veterinariia (Moscow), 2, 47–48.

Shingarev, N.I. (1928). Notes on Culicidae. III. Tropichenskai meditsina I: Veterinariia (Moscow), 6, 47–53.

Stone, A., Knight, K.L., & Starcke, H. (1959). A synoptic catalog of the mosquitoes of the world (Diptera, Culicidae) (Vol. 6). Washington, DC: Thomas Say Foundation, Entomological Society of America.



Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (Year). Anopheles hyrcanus species page. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit Website,, accessed on [date (e.g. 03 February 2020) when you last viewed the site].