Wyeomyia Theobald, 1901

NEARCTIC & NEOTROPICAL REGIONS

Family
Subfamily
Tribe

Generic abbreviation: Wy.

Type species: Wyeomyia grayii Theobald

Etymology: unknown [not stated]

Wyeomyia species are found in forested regions of the Neotropics, eastern United States, and on islands in the Caribbean. Wyeomyia most closely resemble mosquitoes in the genera Sabethes and Limatus but the presence of prealar setae differentiate Wyeomyia species from all other Sabethines, with the exception of Sabethes petrocchiae (Shannon & del Ponte). The genus was recently subdivided into 17 subgenera, following morphological and allozyme studies. The subgenera include Antunesmyia (3 species), Caenomyiella (1 species), Cruzmyia (4 species), Decamyia (3 species), Dendromyia (6 species), Dodecamyia (one species), Exallomyia (three species), Hystatomyia (9 species), Menolepis (1 species), Miamyia (7 species), Nunezia (3 species), Phoniomyia (22 species), Prosopolepis (1 species), Spilonympha (7 species), Triamyia (2 species), Wyeomyia (35 species) and Zinzala (2 species). Thirty more species remain unplaced.

 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS  (Click photo to zoom in.)

ADULT (illustrated): Head: Clypeus without seta; head without erect scales. Thorax: Scutum with dull, bronzish metallic scales through brightly golden; Prespiracular setae present; prealar setae present. Legs: Ta-I–III dark.

LARVA (not illustrated): Head: Maxillary palpus articulated, attached to maxillary body; maxillary brush unmodified, usually present; setae 1-C not closely approximated. Abdomen: Seta 8-M present.

 

TAXONOMIC KEYS

WRBU LUCID KEYS

 

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Global – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Global – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Nearctic – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Nearctic – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Neotropical – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Neotropical – Larva

Exemplar DNA sequences

Wy. occulta COI: MF172468–73

Wy. pertinans COI: MF172474–84

Wy. pseudopecten COI: MF172485–94

Wy. robusta COI: MF17249599

Wy. smithii COI: MF822694, MF827000

Wy. splendida COI: MF172500–04

Wy. surinamensis COI: MF172510–14

Wy. testei COI: MF172515–24

All Wyeomyia DNA sequences

 

BIONOMICS

Immatures

Wyeomyia are most commonly encountered in Neotropical forests where immatures occupy natural containers including bamboo (broken, internodes and stumps), tree holes, pitcher plants, bromeliad and aroid leaf axils, flower bracts, and the occasional artificial container. Immatures of the most northern Wyeomyia species—Wy. (Wyo.) smithii (Coquillett)are restricted to the acidic sphagnum bogs in the eastern United States where their host pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea gibbosa and Sarracenia purpurea venosa) are found. Larvae are sustained by the insect detritus-rich pitcher plant juices, and protect themselves from predation by a co-existing carnivorous chironomid by having long setae all over its body. Wyeomyia smithii overwinters as larvae and can tolerate freezing; adult females are autogenous.

Adults

Adult Wyeomyia are active during the day and at all elevations in the forest. Many feed readily on people, and many mammal and bird species. All Sabethine mosquitoes rest with their hind legs bent over the head, but Wy. smithii females maintain this stance even during flight.

 

IMPORTANT REFERENCES (full citations below)

Theobald 1901b: 235 (as genus, subgenus)

Theobald 1901a: 98 (as genus, subgenus)

Theobald 1901c: 267 (as genus, subgenus)

Bruijning 1959:99 (taxonomy)

Stone 1969:2 (taxonomy)

Belkin, Heinemann & Page 1970:205 (taxonomy)

 

VALID SUBGENERA

Antunesmyia Lane & Cerqueira [Ant.]

Caenomyiella Harbach & Peyton [Cae.]

Cruzmyia Lane & Cerqueira [Cru.]

Decamyia Dyar [Dec.]

Dendromyia Theobald [Den.]

Dodecamyia Dyar [Dod.]

Exallomyia Harbach & Peyton [Exm.]

Hystatomyia Dyar [Hys.]

Menolepis Lutz [Men.]

Miamyia Dyar [Mia.]

Nunezia Theobald [Nuz.]

Phoniomyia Lutz [Pho.]

Prosopolepsis Motta & Lourenço de Oliveira [Prl.]

Spilonympha Motta & Lourenço de Oliveira [Spi.]

Triamyia Theobald [Tra.]

Wyeomyia Theobald [Wyo.]

Zinzala Zavortink [Zin.]

 

CURRENT GENERIC & SUBGENERIC SYNONYMS

Decamyia

syn. Heliconiamyia Dyar 1919d: 123 (as genus). Type species: Wyeomyia galoa Dyar & Knab.

 

Dendromyia

syn. Wyeomyia, subgenus Shropshirea Dyar 1922d: 97. Type species: Wyeomyia (Shropshirea) ypsipola Dyar.

syn. Dendromyia, subgenus Melanolepis Dyar 1928: 69,72. Type species Prosopolepis jocasa Dyar and Knab (Edwards 1932a: 87).

 

Phoniomyia

syn. Dyarina Bonne-Wepster & Bonne 1921: 6. Type species: Dyarina tripartita Bonne-Wepster & Bonne.

 

Wyeomyia

syn. Diphalangarpe Dyar 1919d: 126. Type species: Wyeomyia abascanta Dyar & Knab.

syn. Caltadimyia dyar 1919d: 137. Types species: Wyeomyia pandora Dyar & Knab.

syn. Pentemyia Dyar 1919d: 122 (as genus). Type species: Wyeomyia drapetes Dyar & Knab.

syn. Wyeomyia, subgenus Shropshirea Dyar 1922d: 97. Type species: Wyeomia (Shropshirea) ypsipola Dyar.

syn. Prosopolepis, subgenus Eunicemyia Dyar & Shannon 1924d: 481. Type species: [Wyeomyia] albosquamata Bonne-Wepster & Bonne.

syn. Wyeomyia, subgenus Phyllozomyia Dyar 1924c: 112. Type species: [Aedes] smithii Coquillett.

syn. Wyeomyia, subgenus Technicomyia Dyar 1925a: 20. Type species: Wyeomyia florestan Dyar.

 

Subgenus Uncertain Wyeomyia

syn. Dinomyia Dyar 1919d: 117 (not Martynov 1909). Type species: Dinomyia proviolans Dyar.

syn. Calladimyia Dyar 1919d: 137. Type species: Wyeomyia pandora Dyar & Knab.

syn. Cleobonnea Dyar 1919d: 134 (formerly syn. of Dendromyia Theobald 1903a). Type species: Wyeomyia occulta Bonne-Wepster & Bonne.

syn. Prosolepis, subgenus Eunicamyia Dyar & Shannon 1924d: 481. Type species: [Wyeomyia] albosquamata Bonne-Webster & Bonne.

syn. Prosopolepis, subg. Janicemyia Dyar & Shannon 1924d: 481. Type species: [Wyeomyia] clasoleuca Dyar & Knab.

 

CITED REFERENCES

Belkin, J.N., Heinemann, S.J., & Page, W.A. (1970). The Culicidae of Jamaica (Mosquito studies. XXI) Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 6(1), 458.

Bonne-Wepster, J., & Bonne, C. (1921a). Notes on South American mosquitoes in the British Museum (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 9(1–3), 1–26.

Bruijning, C.F.A. (1959). Notes on Wyeomyia mosquitoes of Suriname, with a description of Wyeomyia surinamensis sp. n. Studies on the fauna of Suriname and other Guyanas, 3(8), 99–146.

Dyar, H.G. (1919d). A revision of the American Sabethini of the Sabethes group by the male genitalia (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 7, 114–142.

Dyar, H.G. (1922d). Mosquito notes (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 10, 92–99.

Dyar, H.G. (1924c). Phoniomyia and Dendromyia Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 12, 107–113.

Dyar, H.G. (1925a). A new sabethid from Panama (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 13, 20–21.

Dyar, H.G., & Shannon, R.C. (1924c). The American species of Uranotaenia (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 12, 187–192.

Dyar, H.G., & Shannon, R.C. (1924d). The subfamilies, tribes and genera of American Culicidae. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 14, 472–486.

Stone, A. (1969). Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Survey of Dominica: the mosquitoes of Dominica (Diptera: Culicidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 16, 1–8.

Theobald, F.V. (1901a). A monograph of the Culicidae or mosquitoes (Vol. 1). London: British Museum (Natural History). [424pp]

Theobald, F.V. (1901b). The classification of mosquitoes. Journal of Tropical Medicine, 4, 229–235.

Theobald, F.V. (1901c). A monograph of the Culicidae or mosquitoes (Vol. 2). London: British Museum (Natural History). with Atlas of 37 colored pls. + 5 pls. of photographs.

 

CITE THIS PAGE

 

Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (Year). Wyeomyia genus page. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit Website, http://wrbu.si.edu/vectorspecies/genera/wyeomyia, accessed on [date (e.g. 03 February 2020) when you last viewed the site].