Uranotaenia Lynch Arribálzaga, 1891

AFROTROPICAL, AUSTRALIASIAN, NEOTROPICAL, NEARCTIC, ORIENTAL & PALEARCTIC REGIONS

Family
Subfamily

Generic abbreviation: Ur.

Type species: Uranotaenia pulcherrima Lynch Arribálzaga

Etymology: n.s. [heaven or sky ribbon (Gr); prob. ref. to bright ornamentation]

The large genus Uranotaenia comprises 271 small, brightly-ornamented species. It is the sole representative of the Tribe Uranotaeniini, which is most speciose in Afrotropical and Oriental Regions. The genus is further subdivided two subgenera: Pseudoficalbia (150 species) and Uranotaenia (121 species). Subgenus Pseudoficalbia are distributed through the Afrotropics, Indian subcontinent, Oriental region and Australasia, with a single species and subspecies found in the New World. Subgenus Uranotaenia are found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Afrotropics, Australasia, Neotropics and Oriental regions.

 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS  (Click image to zoom in.)

ADULT (illustrated): Wing: Cell R2 always shorter than vein R2+3; vein 1A sharply curved downward, ending before base of mediocubital crossvein; wing membrane microtrichiae small, not visible using ordinary magnification. 

LARVA (not illustrated): Head: Seta 1-C on a distinct prominence on anterior margin of the head; seta 14-C at the anterior margin of the head; hypostomal suture absent. Terminal segments: Single row of posterior comb scales present on comb plate; pecten with few to many pecten spines; seta 1-S inserted far from base of siphon.

 

TAXONOMIC KEYS

Edwards 1941 (Afrotropics)

Hopkins 1952 (Afrotropics)

Belkin 1953a: 312 (Solomon Islands)

Galindo et al. 1954: 107 (Americas)

Lane 1953 (Neotropics)

Galindo et al. 1954 (Panama)

Belkin 1962 (South Pacific)

Delfinado 1966a (Philippines)

Belkin et al. 1970 (Jamaica)

Tanaka et al. 1979 (Japan)

Clark-Gil & Darsie 1983 (Guatemala)

Darsie 1985 (Argentina)

Lee et al. 1989 (Australasia)

Darsie & Pradhan 1990 (taNepal)

Service 1990 (Afrotropics)

da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes 2004 (Madagascar)

Rattanarithikul & Harrison et al. 2005 (Thailand)

Rattanarithikul et al. 2006a (Thailand)

WRBU LUCID KEYS

 

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Global – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Global – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Afrotropical – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Afrotropical – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Australasia – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Australasia – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – IndoMalaya – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – IndoMalaya – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Oriental – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Oriental – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Eastern Palearctic – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Eastern Palearctic – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Western Palearctic – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Western Palearctic – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Nearctic – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Nearctic – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Neotropic – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Neotropic – Larva

Exemplar DNA sequences

Ur. balfouri COI: KM097030

Ur. bicolor COI: AY917205

Ur. calosomata COI: KF671034

Ur. lowii COI: AF417728, AF417764, HE600029

Ur. sapphirina COI: GU908125–30

Ur. socialis COI: JX260253

All Uranotaenia DNA sequences

 

BIONOMICS

Immatures

Uranotaenia immatures are typically found in permanent ground waters, including swamps and marshes with floating and emergent vegetation, but several species are reported from temporary water habitats, such as those in natural containers—leaf axils, tree holes, bamboo, flower bracts, fallen plant spathes or leaves—as well as in rock holes, crabholes, and other artificial containers.

Adults

Female Uranotaenia do not commonly feed on man, instead preferring mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Adult Ur. sapphirina (Osten Sacken) (which occurs from Mexico north to Canada) feed exclusively on annelids including earthworms and leeches in Florida, whereas their blood meals included deer, man, and eastern box turtles in Tennessee. Uranotaenia lowii Theobald feeds only on anurans (frogs and toads), and locate their hosts through their songs. In temperate regions, female Uranotaenia overwinter as mated females and populations are multivoltine.

 

IMPORTANT REFERENCES (full citations below)

Lynch Arribálzaga 1891a: 375 1891b: 163 (as genus, subgenus)

Barraud 1934 (tax. bion. distr.; southern Asia)

Edwards 1941 (F, P; tax. keys; Afrotropics)

Hopkins 1952 (L; tax. key; Afrotropics); Belkin 1953a: 312 (tax. keys; Solomon Islands)

Galindo et al. 1954: 107 (keys; Americas)

Lane 1953 (tax. bion. keys; Neotropics)

Galindo et al. 1954 (tax. keys, bion.; Panama)

Belkin 1962 (review, tax. bion. keys; South Pacific)

Delfinado 1966a (tax. keys, bion.; Philippines)

Belkin et al. 1970 (tax. keys, bion.; Jamaica)

Peyton 1972: 16 (subg. class.)

Peyton 1977 (Pseudoficalbia revision; SE Asia)

Tanaka et al. 1979 (tax. bion. keys; Japan)

Clark-Gil & Darsie 1983 (keys; Guatemala)

Darsie 1985 (keys; Argentina)

Mitchell & Darsie 1985 (review, bibliography. distr.; Argentina)

Lee et al. 1989c (tax. bion. key; Australasia)

Darsie & Pradhan 1990 (tax. bion. keys; Nepal)

Service 1990 (tax. bion. keys; Afrotropics)

da Cunha Ramos 1993 (revision; Afrotropics)

da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes 2004 (tax. bion. keys; Madagascar)

Rattanarithikul & Harrison et al. 2005 (F, L; tax. keys, bion.; Thailand)

Rattanarithikul et al. 2006a (tax. bion. keys; Thailand)

 

VALID SUBGENERA

Pseudoficalbia Theobald [Pfc.]

Uranotaenia Lynch Arribálzaga [Ura.]

 

CURRENT GENERIC & SUBGENERIC SYNONYMS

Uranotaenia

syn. Anisocheleomyia Theobald 1905a: 52. Type species: Anisocheleomyia nivipes Theobald (Brunetti 1914: 55).

syn. Pseudouranotaenia Theobald 1905g: 33 (as genus). Type species: Pseudouranotaenia rowlandi Theobald.

 

CITED REFERENCES

Barraud, P. J. (1934). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Diptera. Vol. 5. Family Culicidae, tribes Megarhinini and Culicini (Vol. 5). London: Taylor and Francis.

Belkin, J.N. (1962). The mosquitoes of the South Pacific (Diptera, Culicidae) (Vols. 1 &2). Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Belkin, J.N., Heinemann, S.J., & Page, W.A. (1970). The Culicidae of Jamaica (Mosquito studies. XXI) Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 6(1), 458.

Brunetti, E. (1914). Critical review of genera in Culicidae. Records of the Indian Museum, 10(2), 15–73.

Brunhes, J. (1968). Contribution a l'étude des Culicides de Madagascar. Synonymie entre Culex (N.) seyrigi Edwards 1941 et Culex (N.) robici Doucet 1960; description de la nymphe et de la femelle de Culex (N.) seyrigi Edwards. Cahier ORSTOM. Série Entomologie Médicale et Parasitologie, 6, 15–18.

Clark-Gil, S., & Darsie, Jnr., R.F. (1983). The mosquitoes of Guatemala: their identification, distribution and bionomics, with keys to adult females and larvae, in English and Spanish. Mosquito Systematics, 15(3), 151–284.

da Cunha Ramos, H. (1993). Revisão do género Uranotaenia (Diptera, Culicidae) na região Afrotropical. Lisbon: Ministério do Planeamento e da Administração do Território, Secretaria de Estado da Ciência e Technologia, Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, Lisboa, Portugal.

da Cunha Ramos, H., & Brunhes, J. (2004). Insecta Diptera Culicidae Uranotaenia. Faune de Madagascar, 1–460.

Darsie, R.F., Jr.  (1985). Mosquitoes of Argentina. Part I. Keys for identification of adult females and fourth stage larvae in English and Spanish (Diptera, Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics, 17(3), 153-23–253.

Darsie, R.F., Jr., & Pradhan, S.P. (1990). The mosquitoes of Nepal: Their identification, distribution and biology. Mosquito Systematics, 22(2), 69–130.

Delfinado, M.D. (1966a). The culicine mosquitoes of the Philippines, tribe Culicini (Diptera, Culicidae). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 7, 1–252.

Edwards, F.W. (1941). Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian Region. III. Culicine adults and pupae. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology.

Galindo, P., & Blanton, F.S. (1954). Nine new species of neotropical Culex, eight from Panama and one from Honduras (Diptera, Culicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 47, 231–247.

Galindo, P., Blanton, F.S., & Peyton, E.L. (1954). A revision of the Uranotaenia of Panama with notes on other American species of the genus (Diptera, Culicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 47, 107–177.

Hopkins, G.H.E. (1952). Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian region. I. Larval bionomics of mosquitoes and taxonomy of culicine larvae (2nd ed.). London, UK: British Museum (Natural History).

Lane, J. (1953). Neotropical Culicidae (Vols. I, II). São Paulo: University of São Paulo.

Lee, D.J., Hicks, M.M., Griffiths, M., Debenham, M.L., Marks, E.N., Bryan, J.H., & Russell, R.C. (1989c). The Culicidae of the Australasian region. Volume 11. Commonwealth Department of Health, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine Monograph Series, 2.

Lynch Arribalzaga, F. (1891a). Dipterologia argentine. Revista del Museo de La Plata, 1, 345–377.

Mitchell, C.J., & Darsie, R.F., Jr. (1985). Mosquitoes of Argentina Part II. Geographic distribution and bibliography (Diptera, Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics, 17, 279–360.

Peyton, E.L. (1972). A subgeneric classification of the genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribalzaga, with a historical review and notes on other categories. Mosquito Systematics, 4(2), 16–40.

Peyton, E.L. (1977). Medical entomology studies -X. A revision of the subgenus Pseudoficalbia of the genus Uranotaenia in Southeast Asia (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 14(3), 1–273.

Rattanarithikul, R., Harrison, B.A., Panthusiri, P., & Coleman, R.E. (2005). Illustrated keys to the mosquitoes of Thailand. I. Background; geographic distribution; lists of genera, subgenera, and species; and a key to the genera. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 36(1), 1–80.

Rattanarithikul, R., Harrison, B.A., Panthusiri, P., Peyton, E.L., & Coleman, R.E. (2006a). Illustrated keys to the mosquitoes of Thailand. III. Genera Aedeomyia, Ficalbia, Mimomyia, Hodgesia, Coquillettidia, Mansonia, and Uranotaenia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 85(Supplement 1), 1.

Rickenbach, A., & Eouzan, J.-P. (1970). Description de quatre Eretmapodites nouveaux du groupe plioleucus Edwards 1941, capturés au Cameroun (Diptera, Culicidae). Cahier ORSTOM. Série Entomologie Médicale et Parasitologie, 8, 131–135.

Service, M.W. (1990). Handbook to the Afrotropical toxorhynchitine and culicine mosquitoes, excepting Aedes and Culex. British Museum (Natural History).

Tanaka, K., Mizusawa, K., & Saugstad, E.S. (1979). A revision of the adult and larval mosquitoes of Japan (including the Ryukyu Archipelago and Ogasawara Islands) and Korea (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 16, 1–987.

Theobald, F.V. (1905a). A new genus of Culicidae. The Entomologist, 38, 52–56.

Theobald, F.V. (1905g). New Culicidae from India, Africa, British Guiana, and Australia. Journal of Economic Entomology, 1, 17–36.

 

CITE THIS PAGE

Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (Year). Uranotaenia genus page. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit Website, http://wrbu.si.edu/vectorspecies/genera/uranotaenia, accessed on [date (e.g. 03 February 2020) when you last viewed the site].