Aedes Meigen, 1818

GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

Family
Subfamily
Tribe

Generic abbreviation: Ae.

Type species: Aedes cinereus Wiedemann

Etymology: distasteful, disagreeable, unpleasant, odious, troublesome (Gr)

The genus Aedes is the largest genus in the tribe Aedini, comprising a large complex assemblage of 932 species, mainly of which are formidable arbovirus vectors. Aedes mosquitoes are distributed in all regions of the World, except Antarctica. The genus includes invasive taxa—e.g., Ae. (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus), Ae. (Stg.) albopictus (Skuse), Ae. (Hulecoeteomyia) japonicus (Theobald), Ae. (Hul.) koreicus (Edwards)—that have established populations far out with their native ranges since the 1950s as a result of increased global trade and the movement of people and goods and the inadvertent carriage of mosquitoes or their eggs, via land, air, and sea.

A series of morphological phylogenies and consequential taxonomic actions by Reinert, Harbach and Kitching since 2000 reduced the genus Aedes to only 12 species, resulting in widespread taxonomic instability and confusion. In 2015, Wilkerson et al. stabilized the systematics of Aedes, and the genus now comprises the original 12 genera, and 74 subgenera (see below).

 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS  (Click photo to zoom in.)

ADULT (illustrated): Thorax: Prespiracular setae absent; postspiracular setae nearly always present; mesopostnotal setae usually absent; base of hind coxa (C-III) usually below base of mesomeron. Wing: Remigial setae absent Abdomen: Apex usually (but not always) more or less pointed in females

LARVA (not illustrated): Thorax: Seta 9–12-T sometimes moderately reduced, longest seta ≥0.5 x length of 9–12-M. Terminal segments: Single pair of seta 1-S, inserted near or beyond middle of siphon; pecten always present (sometimes reduced to one or two spines).

 

TAXONOMIC KEYS

Knight & Hull 1951b (Philippines)

Senevet & Andarelli 1954b (North Africa)

Muspratt 1956a (South Africa)

Sazanova 1958 (forest zone; former USSR)

Smith 1958 (New England, United States)

Mattingly 1958a (Indomalayan area)

Hedeen 1959 (France)

Mattingly 1959:1 (Indomalayan area)

Price 1960 (Minnesota, United States)

Mattingly 1961 (Indomalayan area)

Belkin 1962 (South Pacific)

DuBose & Curtin 1965 (Mediterranean area)

Myers 1967 (California & Nevada, United States)

Huang 1968b (Papuan Region)

Smith 1969a (New England, United States)

Berlin 1969a (subgenus Howardina)

Belkin et al. 1970 (Jamaica)

McIntosh 1971 (southern Africa)

Huang 1972c (Southeast Asia)

Ribeiro & da Cunha Ramos 1973 (Angola)

Darsie & Ward 1981 (North America)

Clark-Gil & Darsie 1983 (Guatemala)

Darsie 1985 (Argentina)

Rattanarithikul & Panthusiri 1994 (Thailand)

Huang 2001 (Afrotropical Region)

Darsie & Ward 2005 (North America)

Mohamed et al. 2017 (Sudan)

WRBU LUCID KEYS

 

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Global – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Global – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Afrotropical – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Afrotropical – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Afrotropical – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Afrotropical – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Eastern Palearctic – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Eastern Palearctic – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Eastern Palearctic – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Eastern Palearctic – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Western Palearctic – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Western Palearctic – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Western Palearctic – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Western Palearctic – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Nearctic – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Nearctic – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Neotropical – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Neotropical – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Neotropical – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Neotropical – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Australasia – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Australasia – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Australasia – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Australasia – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – IndoMalaya – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – IndoMalaya – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – IndoMalaya – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – IndoMalaya – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Genera – Oriental – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Genera – Oriental – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Oriental – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Oriental – Larva

Exemplar DNA sequences

Ae. (Stg.) aegypti whole genome: GCF_002204515

Ae. (Stg.) albopictus whole genome: GCF_001876365

All Aedes DNA sequences

 

BIONOMICS

Immatures

The larval habitats of Aedes mosquitoes are hugely diverse. Aedes (Pat.) dobodurus King & Hoogstraal, breeds exclusively in small amounts of rainwater collected in cup fungi in Papua New Guinea. Many temperate Aedes are floodwater mosquitoes, laying eggs in grassy sites prone to flooding. Egg hatching is stimulated by the water inundation from snowmelt, resulting in intense early season populations. Tropical forest species including Aedes (Stegomyia) species that typically occupy small plant cavities have rapidly domesticated to artificial containers in urban/semi-urban environments, where they act as vectors of zoonotic spill-over diseases.

Adults

Aedes females are typically active during the day feeding a wide variety of mammalian, bird, amphibian and reptilian hosts, and often taking blood from more than one individual per egg cycle. In Aedes, infection with arboviruses appears to alter some aspects of mosquito behavior that facilitate transmission—when infected with dengue virus, Aedes aegypti probes more often and takes longer to feed; when infected with Sindbis virus, it becomes less susceptible to chemical repellents. Several arboviruses are transmitted transovarially by Aedes mosquitoes. Balloon captures at heights up to 240m above the Sahara Desert showed the active long-distance migration of gravid Aedes females, potentially transporting already infected eggs to new zones.

Associated Pathogens

 

IMPORTANT REFERENCES (full citations below)

Meigen 1818: 13 (as genus)

Dyar 1920n: 103-106

Bauer 1928 (yellow fever vectors, not aegypti)

Barraud 1934 (south Asia)

Knight & Hull 1951b (keys; Philippines)

Lane 1953 (Neotropical Region)

Senevet & Andarelli 1954b (L*; key, North Africa)

Muspratt 1956a (M*, F*, L*); keys, bionomics, distribution, subgenus Stegomyia; South Africa)

Sazanova 1958 (F; key, forest zone; former USSR)

Smith 1958 (F; key, New England, United States)

Mattingly 1958a (keys, subgenus Paraedes, Rhinoskusea, Cancraedes, Indomalayan area)

Hedeen 1959 (L; key, France)

Mattingly 1959:1 (keys, subgenus Skusea, Diceromyia, Geoskusea, Christophersiomyia, Indomalayan area)

Price 1960 (key 1st stage larvae, Minnesota, United States)

Mattingly 1961 (keys, subgenus Mucidus, Ochlerotatus, Neomelaniconion, Indomalayan area)

Belkin 1962 (M*, F*, P*, L*; keys, taxonomy, classification; South Pacific)

Dobrotworsky 1965 (taxonomy, bionomics, distribution; Australia)

DuBose & Curtin 1965 (keys; Mediterranean area)

Forattini 1965 (Neotropical Region)

Cova-García et al. 1966 (Venezuela)

Myers 1967 (key to eggs; California & Nevada, United States)

Huang 1968b (key to subgenus Papuan Region)

Belkin 1968a (New Zealand)

Smith 1969a (L; key, New England, United States)

Smith 1969b (2nd & 3rd instar larval recognition)

Berlin 1969a (M*, F*, L*, P*; keys, bion. revision, subgenus Howardina)

Rjazantzeva 1970 (F gen.*)

Belkin et al. 1970 (M*, F*, P*, L*; keys, Jamaica)

Reinert 1970a (subgenus Diceromyia)

Schick 1970a,b (former Ae. terrens group; Neotropical Region)

Tyson 1970b (subgenus Mucidus)

Lunt & Nielsen 1971a (F thoracic setae)

Lunt & Nielsen 1971b (F thoracic setae)

McIntosh 1971 (M, F; keys, subgenus Neomelaniconion; southern Africa)

Reinert 1972c (subgenus Ayurakitia)

Huang 1972c (M*, F*, P*, L*; keys, revision, Ae. scutellaris group; Southeast Asia)

Zavortink 1972 (various subgenus formerly in Ae. (Finlaya)

New World)

Moriya, Yabe & Harada 1973 (E*; SEM, morphology)

Ribeiro & da Cunha Ramos 1973 (F, L; keys, bionomics, taxonomy, distribution; Angola)

Reinert 1973b (subgenus Aedimorphus)

Reinert 1973e (subgenus Bothaella)

Gutsevich 1974 (F; Palearctic)

Reinert 1974a (Verrallina as subgenus)

Gutsevich et al. 1974 (former USSR)

Gutsevich 1975 (F; head morphology)

Hartberg 1975 (phylogeny)

McIntosh 1975 (subgenus Aedimorphus; southern Africa)

Reinert 1976c (subgenus Indusius & Edwardsaedes)

Reinert 1976d (subgenus Rhinoskusea)

Arnell 1976 (subgenus Ochlerotatus, Ae. scapularis group; New World)

Wolff & Nielsen 1977 (chaetotaxy, snowpool Aedes; United States)

Huang 1977a (subgenus Stegomyia; Oriental Region)

Abercrombie 1977 (subgenus Christophersiomyia)

Huang 1979a (subgenus Stegomyia; Oriental Region)

Tanaka et al. 1979 (Japan)

Wood et al. 1979 (Canada)

Reinert 1981 (subgenus Paraedes)

Darsie & Ward 1981 (F, L; keys; North America)

Lee et al. 1982 (Australasian Region)

Lu & Li 1982a (People's Republic of China)

Clark-Gil & Darsie 1983 (keys; Guatemala)

Reinert 1984 (subgenus Verrallina; Sri Lanka)

Lee et al. 1984 (Australasian Region)

Reinert 1985 (subgenus Scutomyia)

Darsie 1985 (F, L; keys; Argentina)

Reinert 1987 (subgenus Albuginosus)

Lee et al. 1987 (Australasian Region)

Reinert 1990 (subgenus Kenknightia)

Darsie & Pradhan 1990 (Nepal)

Huang 1990 (subgenus Stegomyia, Ae. africanus group; Afrotropical Region)

Reinert 1993 (subgenus Molpemyia)

Rattanarithikul & Panthusiri 1994 (keys, medically important species; Thailand)

Jupp 1996 (keys, taxonomy; southern Africa)

Reinert 1999 (subgenus Zavortinkius)

Reinert 2000a (F genitalia; Aedini)

Reinert 2000e (F genitalia*)

Reinert 2000g (subgenus Fredwardsius)

Reinert 2000i (subgenus Ayurakitia to genus)

Reinert 2000 (F genitalia*)

Reinert 2002e (F genitalia*)

Huang 2001 (key to subgenus of Aedes; Afrotropical Region)

Tanaka 2003a (P*; Japan)

Reinert et al. 2004 (phylogeny, classification)

Huang 2004 (subgenus Stegomyia; Afrotropical Region)

Darsie & Ward 2005 (F, L; keys, North America)

Rattanarithikul & Harrison et al. 2005 (F, L; taxonomic keys, bionomics; Thailand)

Reinert et al. 2006 (phylogeny, classification)

Reinert et al. 2008 (phylogeny, classification)

Reinert et al. 2009 (phylogeny, classification)

Huang et al. 2010 (subgenus Levua, phylogeny)

Huang et al. 2012 (subgenus Levua, taxonomy, morphology)

Wilkerson et al. 2015 (phylogeny, classification)

Huang & Rueda 2015 (subgenus Pseudalbuginosus, taxonomy, morphology)

Mohamed et al. 2017 (F, L; keys, bionomics, Sudan)

Brunhes et al. 2017 (subgenus Paulianius [as genus], taxonomy, bionomics, keys)

Soghigian et al. 2017 (phylogeny)

 

VALID SUBGENERA

Abraedes Zavortink [Abr.]

Acartomyia Theobald [Acy.]

Aedes Meigen [Aed.]

Aedimorphus Theobald [Adm.]

Alanstonea Mattingly [Ala.]

Albuginosus Reinert [Alb.]

Ayurakitia Thurman [Ayu.]

Aztecaedes Zavortink [Azt.]

Belkinius Reinert [Blk.]

Bifidistylus Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Bif.]

Borichinda Harbach & Rattanarithikul [Bor.]

Bothaella Reinert [Bot.]

Bruceharrisonius Reinert [Brh.]

Cancraedes Edwards [Can.]

Catageiomyia Theobald [Cat.]

Catatassomyia Dyar & Shannon [Cts.]

Christophersiomyia Barraud [Chr.]

Collessius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Col.]

Cornetius Huang [Cor.]

Dahliana Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Dah.]

Danielsia Theobald [Dan.]

Dendroskusea Edwards [Dsk.]

Diceromyia Theobald [Dic.]

Dobrotworskyius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Dob.]

Downsiomyia Vargas [Dow.]

Edwardsaedes Belkin [Edw.]

Elpeytonius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Elp.]

Finlaya Theobald [Fin.]

Fredwardsius Reinert [Fre.]

Georgecraigius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Grg.]

Geoskusea Edwards [Geo.]

Gilesius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Gil.]

Gymnometopa Coquillett [Gym.]

Halaedes Belkin [Hal.]

Himalaius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Him.]

Hopkinsius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Hop.]

Howardina Theobald [How.]

Huaedes Huang [Hua.]

Hulecoeteomyia Theobald [Hul.]

Indusius Edwards [Ind.]

Isoaedes Reinert [Isa.]

Jarnellius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Jar.]

Jihlienius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Jih.]

Kenknightia Reinert [Ken.]

Kompia Aitken [Kom.]

Leptosomatomyia Theobald [Lep.]

Levua Stone & Bohart [Lev.]

Lewnielsenius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Lew.]

Lorrainea Belkin [Lor.]

Luius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Lui.]

Macleaya Theobald [Mac.]

Molpemyia Theobald [Mol.]

Mucidus Theobald [Muc.]

Neomelaniconion Newstead [Neo.]

Nyctomyia Harbach & Linton [Nyc.]

Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribálzaga [Och.]

Paraedes Edwards [Par.]

Patmarksia Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Pat.]

Petermattinglyius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Pet.]

Phagomyia Theobald [Phg.]

Polyleptiomyia Theobald [Pmt.]

Protomacleaya Theobald [Pro.] (in prep)

Pseudarmigeres Stone & Knight [Psa.]

Pseudoskusea Theobald [Psk.]

Rampamyia Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Ram.]

Rhinoskusea Edwards [Rhi.]

Rusticoidus Shevchenko & Prudkina [Rus.]

Sallumia Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Sal.]

Scutomyia Theobald [Sct.]

Skusea Theobald [Sku.]

Stegomyia Theobald [Stg.]

Tanakaius Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Tan.]

Tewarius Reinert [Tew.]

Vansomerenis Reinert, Harbach & Kitching [Van.]

Zavortinkius Reinert [Zav.]

 

CURRENT GENERIC SYNONYMS

None

 

CITED REFERENCES

Abercrombie, J. (1977). Medical entomology studies - IX. The subgenus Christophersiomyia of the genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 14(2), 1–72.

Arnell, J. H. (1976). Mosquito studies (Diptera, Culicidae) XXXII. A revision of the scapularis group of Aedes (Ochlerotatus). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 13(3).

Barraud, P. J. (1934). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Diptera. Vol. 5. Family Culicidae, tribes Megarhinini and Culicini (Vol. 5). London: Taylor and Francis.

Bauer, J. H. (1928). The transmission of yellow fever by mosquitoes other than Aedes aegypti. American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 8(4), 261–282.

Belkin, J.N. (1962). The mosquitoes of the South Pacific (Diptera, Culicidae) (Vols. 1 &2). Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Belkin, J.N. (1968a). Mosquito studies (Diptera, Culicidae) VII. The Culicidae of New Zealand. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 3(1), 1–182.

Belkin, J.N., Heinemann, S.J., & Page, W.A. (1970). The Culicidae of Jamaica (Mosquito studies. XXI) Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 6(1), 458.

Berlin, O.G.W. (1969a). Mosquito studies (Diptera, Culicidae). XII. A revision of the Neotropical subgenus Howardina of Aedes. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 4(2), 1–190.

Brunhes, J., Boussès, P., Tantely, M.L., & Kengue, P. (2017). Un nouveau genre de Culicidae (Diptera), Paulianius n. gen., avec la description de trois nouvelles espèces malgaches. Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N.S), 53(5), 344–373.

Clark-Gil, S., & Darsie, Jnr., R.F. (1983). The mosquitoes of Guatemala: their identification, distribution and bionomics, with keys to adult females and larvae, in English and Spanish. Mosquito Systematics, 15(3), 151–284.

Cova García, P., Sutil, E., & Rausseo, J.A. (1966). Mosquitos (Culicinos) de Venezuela. vol. I. [adults], vol. II. [larvae]. Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social, Caracas

Darsie, R.F., Jr. (1985). Mosquitoes of Argentina. Part I. Keys for identification of adult females and fourth stage larvae in English and Spanish (Diptera, Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics, 17(3), 153–253.

Darsie, R.F., Jr., & Pradhan, S.P. (1990). The mosquitoes of Nepal: Their identification, distribution and biology. Mosquito Systematics, 22(2), 69–130.

Darsie, R.F., Jr., & Ward, R.A. (1981). Identification and geographical distribution of the mosquitoes of North America, north of Mexico. Mosquito Systematics Supplement, Supplement 1, 1–313.

Darsie, R.F., Jr., & Ward, R.A. (2005). Identification and geographical distribution of the mosquitoes of North America, north of Mexico. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Dobrotworsky, N.V. (1965). The mosquitoes of Victoria (Diptera, Culicidae). London and New York.

Dubose, W.P., & Curtin, T.J. (1965). Identification keys to the adult and larval mosquitoes of the Mediterranean area. Journal of Medical Entomology, 1(4), 349–355.

Dyar, H.G. (1920n). The classification of American Aedes (Diptera, Culicidae). Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 8(7,9), 103–106.

Forattini, O. P. (1965). Entomologia Médica. Vol. 2. Culicini: Culex, Aedes e Psorophora. São Paulo: Universidade de São Paulo.

Gutsevich, A.V. (1974). On the identification of mosquito females (Culicidae) by microscopic preparations of the head. IV. Key to species of the genus Aedes. Parazitologiya (St. Petersburg), 8(4), 329–335.

Gutsevich, A.V. (1975). Structural features of the female head as systematic characters in the family Culicidae (Diptera). Entomological Review, 54(4), 113–114.

Gutsevich, A.V., Monchadskii, A.S., & Shtakel’berg, A.A. (1974). Fauna of the USSR. New series No. 100 Diptera. Vol. III, No. 4. Mosquitoes. Family Culicidae. Jerusalem, Israel: Keter Publishing House Jerusalem Ltd. (Original work published 1971).

Hartberg, W.K. (1975). Comments on reproductive isolation and phylogeny of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Mosquito Systematics, 7(3), 193–206.

Hedeen, R.A. (1959). A review of the mosquito larvae of France II. The genus Aedes. Mosquito News, 9, 179–183.

Huang, Y.-M. (1968b). A new subgenus of Aedes (Diptera, Culicidae) with illustrated key to the subgenera of the Papuan subregion (Diptera, Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 5, 169–188.

Huang, Y.-M. (1972c). Contributions to the mosquito fauna of Southeast Asia. XIV. The subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in Southeast Asia. I. The Scutellaris group of species. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 9(1), 1–109.

Huang, Y.-M. (1977a). Medical entomology studies - VII. The subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in Southeast Asia. II- The edwardsi group of species. III- The w-albus group of species (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 14(1), 1–111.

Huang, Y.-M. (1979a). Medical entomology studies - XI. The subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Oriental region with keys to the species (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 15(6), 1–76.

Huang, Y.-M. (1990). The subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region I. The Africanus group of species (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 26(1), 1–90.

Huang, Y.-M. (2001). A pictorial key for the identification of the subfamilies of Culicidae, genera of Culicinae and subgenera of Aedes mosquitoes of the Afrotropical region (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 103, 1–53.

Huang, Y.-M. (2004). The subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region with keys to the species (Diptera: Culicidae). Zootaxa, 700, 1–120.

Huang, Y.-M., & Rueda, L.M. (2015). Pictorial keys to the species of Albuginosus and Aedimorphus (Grjebinei and Apicoannulatus Groups) of the genus Aedes Meigen in the Afrotropical Region (Diptera: Culicidae). Zootaxa, 3925(1), 25–36.

Huang, Y.-M., Mathis, W.N., & Wilkerson, R.C. (2010). Coetzeemyia, a new subgenus of Aedes, and a redescription of the holotype female of Aedes (Coetzeemyia) fryeri (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae). Zootaxa, 6, 1–24.

Huang, Y.-M., Mathis, W.N., & Wilkerson, R.C. (2012). Subgeneric position of Aedes dufouri Hamon with notes on the subgenus Levua Stone and Bohart (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 114(2), 194–204.

Jupp, P.G. (1996). Mosquitoes of southern Africa. Culicinae and Toxorhynchitinae.

Knight, K.L., & Hull, W.B. (1951b). The Aedes mosquitoes of the Philippine Islands I. Keys to species. Subgenera Mucidus, Ochlerotatus, and Finlaya (Diptera, Culicidae). Pacific Science, 5, 211–251.

Lane, J. (1953). Neotropical Culicidae (Vols. I, II). São Paulo: University of São Paulo.

Lee, D.J., Hicks, M.M., Griffiths, M., Debenham, M.L., Bryan, J.H., Russell, R.C., . . . Marks, E.N. (1987a). The Culicidae of the Australasian region. Volume 4. Commonwealth Department of Health, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine Monograph Series, 2.

Lee, D.J., Hicks, M.M., Griffiths, M., Russell, R.C., & Marks, E.N. (1982). The Culicidae of the Australasian region. Volume 2. Commonwealth Department of Health, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine Monograph Series, 2.

Lee, D.J., Hicks, M.M., Griffiths, M., Russell, R.C., & Marks, E.N. (1984). The Culicidae of the Australasian region. Volume 3. Commonwealth Department of Health, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine Monograph Series, 2.

Lu, B.-L., & Li, B. S. (1982a). Identification of Chinese mosquitoes. In B. S. Lu (Ed.), Identification handbook for medically important animals in China [in Chinese] (pp. 1–159). Beijing: People’s Health Publication Company.

Lunt, S.R., & Nielsen, L.T. (1971a). The use of thoracic setae as a taxonomic tool and as an aid in establishing phylogenetic relationships in adult female Aedes mosquitoes of North America. Part I. Mosquito Systematics Newsletter, 3(2), 69–98.

Lunt, S.R., & Nielsen, L.T. (1971b). The use of thoracic setae as a taxonomic tool and as an aid in establishing phylogenetic relationships in adult female Aedes mosquitoes of North America. Part II. Mosquito Systematics Newsletter, 3, 102–121.

Mattingly, P.F. (1958a). The culicine mosquitoes of the Indomalayan Area. Part III. Genus Aedes Meigen, subgenera Paraedes‚ Edwards, Rhinoskusea Edwards and Cancraedes‚ Edwards. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Mattingly, P.F. (1959). The culicine mosquitoes of the Indomalayan Area. Part IV. Genus Aedes Meigen, subgenera Skusea Theobald, Diceromyia Theobald, Geoskusea Edwards and Christophersiomyia Barraud. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology, 1–61.

Mattingly, P.F. (1961). The culicine mosquitoes of the Indomalayan Area. Part V. Genus Aedes Meigen, subgenera Mucidus Theobald, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga and Neomelaniconion Newstead. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology.

McIntosh, B.M. (1971). The aedine subgenus Neomelaniconion (Culicidae: Diptera) in southern Africa with descriptions of two new species. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 34(2), 319–333.

McIntosh, B.M. (1975). A taxonomic revision of certain Aedes species (Diptera: Culicidae) of the subgenus Aedimorphus in Southern Africa. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 38(2), 251–287.

Meigen, J.W. (1818). Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europaischen zweiflugeligen Insekten. Aachen.

Mohamed, A.H., Ali, A.M., Harbach, R.E., Reeves, R.G., Ibrahim, K.M., Ahmed Mohmed, M.A., & Azrag, R.S. (2017). Aedes mosquitoes in the Republic of the Sudan, with dichotomous keys for the adult and larval stages. Journal of Natural History, 51(9‒10), 513–529.

Moriya, K., Yabe, T., & Harada, F. (1973). Chorionic markings of some aedine mosquitoes in Japan. 1. Preliminary observations by a scanning electron microscope and a reflected lighting microscope. Japanese J Sanit Zool, 24(1), 47–55.

Muspratt, J. (1956a). The Stegomyia mosquitoes of South Africa and some neighbouring territories. Including chapters on the mosquito-borne virus diseases of the Ethiopian zoogeographical region of Africa. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 4, 1–138.

Myers, C.M. (1967). Identification and description of Aedes eggs from California and Nevada (Diptera: Culicidae). Canadian Entomologist, 99, 795–806.

Price, R.D. (1960). Identification of first-instar aedine mosquito larvae of Minnesota (Diptera: Culicidae). Canadian Entomologist, 92, 544–560.

Rattanarithikul, R., & Panthusiri, P. (1994). Illustrated keys to the medically important mosquitoes of Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 66(Supplement 1), 1.

Rattanarithikul, R., Harrison, B.A., Panthusiri, P., & Coleman, R.E. (2005a). Illustrated keys to the mosquitoes of Thailand. I. Background; geographic distribution; lists of genera, subgenera, and species; and a key to the genera. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 36(1), 1–80.

Reinert, J.F. (1970a). Contributions to the mosquito fauna of South-East Asia. 5. Genus Aedes, subgenus Diceromyia, Theobald in South-East Asia. Contributions of the America Institute of Entomology, 5(4)), 1–43.

Reinert, J.F. (1972c). Contributions to the mosquito fauna of Southeast Asia. XV. Genus Aedes Meigen, subgenus Ayurakitia Thurman. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 9(2), 1–42.

Reinert, J.F. (1973b). Contributions to the mosquito fauna of Southeast Asia. XVI. Genus Aedes Meigen, subgenus Aedimorphus Theobald in Southeast Asia. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 9(5), 1–218.

Reinert, J.F. (1973e). Contributions to the mosquito fauna of Southeast Asia. XIX. Bothaella, A new subgenus of Aedes Meigen. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 10(3), 1–51.

Reinert, J.F. (1974a). A new interpretation of the subgenus Verrallina of the genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 11(1), 1–249.

Reinert, J.F. (1976c). Medical entomology studies - IV. The subgenera Indusius and Edwardsaedes of the genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 13(1), 1–45.

Reinert, J.F. (1976d). Medical entomology studies- V. The subgenus Rhinoskusea of the genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 13(2), 1–60.

Reinert, J.F. (1981). Medical entomology studies- XV. A revision of the subgenus Paraedes of the genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 18(4), 1–91.

Reinert, J.F. (1984). Medical entomology studies - XVI. A review of the species of subgenus Verrallina, genus Aedes, from Sri Lanka and a revised description of the subgenus (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics, 16(1), 1–130.

Reinert, J.F. (1985). A description of Scutomyia, a subgenus resurrected from the Albolineatus group of the genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics, 17(2), 121–131.

Reinert, J.F. (1987). Albuginosus, a new subgenus of Aedes Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae) described from the Afrotropical Region. Mosquito Systematics, 18 (for 1986)(3–4), 307–326.

Reinert, J.F. (1990). Medical entomology studies- XVII. Biosystematics of Kenknightia, a new subgenus of the mosquito genus Aedes Meigen from the Oriental region (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 26(2), 1–119.

Reinert, J.F. (1993). Redescription of Molpemyia, and its revalidation as a subgenus of Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics, 25(1), 41–63.

Reinert, J.F. (1999a). Descriptions of Zavortinkius, a new subgenus of Aedes, and the eleven included species from the Afrotropical region (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 31(2), 1–105.

Reinert, J.F. (2000a). Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of genera and subgenera in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part I. Introduction, preparation techniques and anatomical terminology. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 32(2), 1–18.

Reinert, J.F. (2000e). Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of genera and subgenera in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part V. Genus Aedes Meigen. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 32(3), 1–102.

Reinert, J.F. (2000g). Descriptions of Fredwardsius, A new subgenus of Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae). European Mosquito Bulletin, 6, 1–7.

Reinert, J.F. (2000i). Restoration of Ayurakitia to generic rank in tribe Aedini and a revised definition of the genus. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 16(2), 57–65.

Reinert, J.F., Harbach, R.E., & Kitching, I.J. (2004). Phylogeny and classification of Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae), based on morphological characters of all life stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 142, 289–368.

Reinert, J.F., Harbach, R.E., & Kitching, I.J. (2006). Phylogeny and classification of Finlaya and allied taxa (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedini) based on morphological data from all life stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society, 148(1), 1–101.

Reinert, J.F., Harbach, R.E., & Kitching, I.J. (2008). Phylogeny and classification of Ochlerotatus and allied taxa (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedini) based on morphological data from all life stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 153, 29–114.

Reinert, J.F., Harbach, R.E., & Kitching, I.J. (2009). Phylogeny and classification of tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 157(4), 700–794.

Ribeiro, H., & da Cunha Ramos, H. (1973). Research on the mosquitoes of Angola. 8. The genus Aedes Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Culicidae). Check-list with new records, keys to females and larvae, distribution and taxonomic and bioecological notes. Anais Inst Hig Med trop, 1(1–4), 107–138.

Rjazantzeva, A. E. (1970). The structure of female genitalia of bloodsucking mosquitoes of the genus Aedes (Diptera, Culicidae). Parassitologia, 4, 401–407.

Sazanova, O.N. (1958). The key for the identification of females of the genus Aedes (Diptera, Culicidae) of the forest zone of the USSR. Revue d’Entomologie de l’URSS, 37, 741–752.

Schick, R.X. (1970a). Mosquito studies (Diptera, Culicidae) XX. The Terrens group of Aedes (Finlaya). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 5(3), 1–158.

Schick, R.X. (1970b). Mosquito studies (Diptera, Culicidae) XXIII. Additions and corrections to the revision of the Aedes terrens group. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 7(1), 13–40.

Senevet, G., & Andarelli, L. (1954b). Le genre Aedes en Afrique du Nord. I.- Les larves. Archives de l’Institut Pasteur d’Algérie, 32, 310–351.

Smith, M.E. (1958). The Aedes mosquitoes of New England (Diptera, Culicidae). I. Key to adult females. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society, 53, 39–47.

Smith, M.E. (1969a). The Aedes mosquitoes of New England (Diptera, Culicidae). II. Larvae: keys to instars and to species exclusive of first instar. Canadian Entomologist, 101, 41–51.

Smith, M.E. (1969b). The Aedes mosquitoes of New England (Diptera, Culicidae). III. Saddle hair position in 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, with particular reference to instar recognition and species relationships. Mosquito Systematics, 1(3), 57–62.

Soghigian, J., Andreadis, T.G., & Livdahl, T.P. (2017). From ground pools to treeholes: convergent evolution of habitat and phenotype in Aedes mosquitoes. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 17, 262.

Tanaka, K. (2003a). Studies of the pupal mosquitoes of Japan. (7) Subgenera Aedimorphus, Geoskusea, Neomelaniconion and Neomacleaya of genus Aedes. (Diptera: Culicidae). Japanese Journal of Systematic Entomology, 9(1), 11–28.

Tanaka, K., Mizusawa, K., & Saugstad, E.S. (1979). A revision of the adult and larval mosquitoes of Japan (including the Ryukyu Archipelago and Ogasawara Islands) and Korea (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 16, 1–987.

Tyson, W.H. (1970b). Contributions to the mosquito fauna of Southeast Asia. VIII. Genus Aedes, subgenus Mucidus Theobald in Southeast Asia. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 6(2), 28–80.

Wilkerson, R.C., Linton, Y.-M., Fonseca, D., Schultz, T., Price, D., & Strickman, D. (2015). Making mosquito taxonomy useful: A stable classification of tribe Aedini that balances utility with current knowledge of evolutionary relationships. PLoS ONE, 10(7), e0133602.

Wolff, T.A., & Nielsen, L.T. (1977). A chaetotaxic study of snowpool Aedes larvae and pupae with an analysis of variance of the larvae of eight species. Mosquito Systematics, 9(2), 176–236.

Wood, D.M., Dang, P.T., & Ellis, R.A. (1979). The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 6. The Mosquitoes of Canada. (Diptera: Culicidae). Hull, Quebec: Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Supply and Services, Canada.

Zavortink, T.J. (1972). Mosquito studies (Diptera, Culicidae) XXVIII. The new world species formerly placed in Aedes (Finlaya). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 8(3), 1–206.

 

CITE THIS PAGE

Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (Year). Aedes genus page. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit Website, http://wrbu.si.edu//vectorspecies/genera/aedes, accessed on [date (e.g. 03 February 2020) when you last viewed the site].